Smoke grenades are canister-type grenades used as ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling devices, target or landing zone marking devices, or as screening devices for unit movements. Smoke grenades are normally considered non-lethal, although incorrect use may cause death. The body consists of a sheet steel cylinder with a four emission holes on top and one on the bottom to allow smoke release when the grenade is ignited. The filler consists of 250 to 350 grams of colored (red, green, orange, gray, yellow, blue, white, black, or violet) smoke composition (mostly potassium chlorate, lactose, and a dye). The reaction is exothermic and grenade casings will often remain scalding hot for some time even after the grenade is no longer emitting smoke.
Another type of smoke grenades are the bursting kind. These are filled with white phosphorus (WP), which is spread by explosive action. White phosphorus catches fire in the presence of air, and burns with a brilliant yellow flame, while producing copious amounts of white smoke (phosphorus pentoxide). These double as incendiary grenades, and a variant of these are also launched from infantry-portable or armored fighting vehicle-mounted grenade launchers. Users must also be wary of wind direction when using smoke grenades.
Smoke grenades should not be confused with smoke bombs, which are typically started with an external fuse rather than a pin. Smoke grenades often cost around $40 USD compared to smoke bombs, which can often cost just a few cents. Smoke grenades generally emit a far larger amount of smoke than smoke bombs that are sold as fireworks.
A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships.
Smoke screens are commonly deployed either by a canister (such as a grenade) or generated by a vehicle (such as a tank or a warship).
It was first used by and devised by Frank Arthur Brock (29 June 1888 – 23 April 1918) who was a British First World War Royal Air Force Officer who used it during the Zeebrugge Raid on 23 April 1918, the British Royal Navy's attempt to neutralize the key Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge.
Whereas smoke screens would originally have been used to hide movement from enemies' line of sight, modern technology means that they are now also available in new forms; they can screen in the infrared as well as visible spectrum of light to prevent detection by infrared sensors or viewers, and also available for vehicles is a superdense form used to prevent laser beams of enemy target designators or range finders on vehicles.
These are canister-type grenades used as a ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling device. The body consists of a steel sheet metal cylinder with a few emission holes on top and on the
Used to create smoke screens, the grenades can be used to provide opportunity for movement over ground covered by fire. Smoke grenades can also be used to signal aircraft. Thermal imaging is able to 'see' through smoke screens and, as such, fighting vehicles equipped with thermal imaging can use smoke to blind the enemy infantry while still being able to see them using thermal cameras.
Smoke grenades are sometimes used in paintball or airsoft events, though these are not necessarily of military grade. Some devices utilized for the purpose of generating concealing smoke are high-volume smoke candles.
Smoke grenades used in paintball and airsoft are typically "cool burning" smoke grenades. "Cool" or "cold" burning is an industry term indicating that the smoke grenade burns at a cooler temperature than military canister style smoke grenades. Additionally, a cool burning smoke grenade does not emit flame or sparks upon ignition or throughout the burn cycle.
Smoke compositions can be also used as an aerosolization vehicle for other materials than dyes; popular applications are in dispersion of CN gas or more commonly CS gas, or in agriculture for dispersion of insecticide
The military of the United States has used many of different types of hand grenades since its foundation. Presented on this page is a basic overview.
More commonly known as the Pineapple, the Mk II series (also written Mk 2) was the most common US fragmentation grenade of the Second World War. The Mk II had a grooved exterior originally intended to aid fragmentation of the grenade. However, later studies showed that this design has no effect on fragmentation, though it does provide a non-slip surface that improves grip. The filling is either TNT (approx. 2 oz/57 g), or EC blank fire powder (approx. 0.75 oz/21 g smokeless small arms powder).
The Mk II was also available in a little-known HE-Blast (better known as concussion) variant and a combined effect HE-Frag variant. This was largely superseded by the Mk III series. The Mk IIA1 (also written Mk 2A1) used the M10A2 or M10A3 fuzes, upgrades to the previous M10A1 fuze used in the Mk II. Later reissued Mk II variants featured the modern M204 series fuze.
Unlike the Mk II, the Mk III (also written Mk 3) was a cylindrical grenade designed to be used as an offensive weapon for clearing rooms, trenches, and other enclosed spaces (i.e., at close range). A concussion grenade, the Mk III series was designed to incapacitate through the pressure and impulse produced by the explosion. The MkIII had a far larger TNT filling than the Mk II series; up t